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Scientists believe that it is very likely that these horses also carried the dun dilution gene. The leopard Appaloosa mutation was also discovered, which was found to be consistent with some cave paintings dating to 25, years ago that depict spotted horses.

Mutations for chestnut, tobiano, and sabino were also observed and were dated to 3, years ago, whereas the buckskin variant had emerged by about 1, years ago.

Most of the variation in coat colour appeared after domestication occurred and was likely the result of artificial selection by humans.

For stabled horses, the diet generally consists of hay and grain. The animal should not be fed immediately before or after work, to avoid digestive problems.

Fresh water is important, especially when the horse is shedding its winter coat, but the animal should never be watered when it is overheated after working.

Oats provide the greatest nutritional value and are given especially to foals. Older horses, whose teeth are worn down, or those with digestive troubles, can be provided with crushed oats.

Chaff minced straw can be added to the oat ration of animals that eat greedily or do not chew the grain properly. Crushed barley is sometimes substituted in part for oats.

Mash is bran mixed with water and with various invigorating additions or medications. It may be given to horses with digestive troubles or deficient eating habits.

Corn maize is used as a fattening cereal , but it makes the horse sweat easily. Salt is needed by the horse at all times and especially when shedding.

Bread , carrots , and sugar are tidbits often used by the rider or trainer to reward an animal. In times of poverty, horses have adapted to all sorts of food— potatoes , beans , green leaves, and in Iceland even fish —but such foods are not generally taken if other fare is available.

A number of commercial feed mixes are available to modern breeders and owners; these mixes contain minerals , vitamins , and other nutrients and are designed to provide a balanced diet when supplemented with hay.

Foals, which stand on their feet a short while after birth and are able to follow their mothers within a few hours, even at this early stage in life exhibit the traits generally ascribed to horses.

They have a tendency to flee danger. They express fear sometimes by showing panic and sometimes by immobility. Horses rarely attack and do so either when flight is impossible or when driven to assault a person who has treated them brutally.

Habit governs a large number of their reactions. Instinct, together with a fine sense of smell and hearing, enables them to sense water, fire , even distant danger.

An extremely well-developed sense of direction permits the horse to find its way back to its stables even at night or after a prolonged absence.

The visual memory of the horse prompts it to shy repeatedly from an object or place where it had earlier experienced fear.

When teaching, the instructor always uses the same words and the same tone of voice for a given desired reaction.

While instinct is an unconscious reaction more or less present in all individuals of the same species, the degree of its expression varies according to the individual and its development.

Cunning animals have been known to employ their intelligence and physical skill to a determined end, such as opening the latch of a stall or the lid of a chest of oats.

The onset of adult sex characteristics generally begins at the age of 16 to 18 months. The horse is considered mature, depending on the breed, at approximately three years and adult at five.

Fecundity varies according to the breed and may last beyond age 20 with Thoroughbreds and to 12 or 15 with other horses.

The gestation period is 11 months; days is the minimum in which the foal can be born with expectation to live. As a rule, a mare produces one foal per mating, twins occasionally, and triplets rarely.

The foal is weaned at six months. The useful life of a horse varies according to the amount of work it is required to do and the maintenance furnished by its owner.

A horse that is trained carefully and slowly and is given the necessary time for development may be expected to serve to an older age than a horse that is rushed in its training.

Racehorses that enter into races at the age of two rarely remain on the turf beyond eight. Well-kept riding horses, on the contrary, may be used more than 20 years.

The life span of a horse is calculated at six to seven times the time necessary for its physical and mental development—that is, 30 to 35 years at the utmost, the rule being about 20 to 25 years.

Ponies generally live longer than larger horses. There are a number of examples of horses that have passed the usual limit of age.

The veterinary university of Vienna conserves the skeleton of a Thoroughbred mare of 44 years of age. There have been reports made of horses living to their early 60s in age.

Horses are subjected to a number of contagious diseases , such as influenza , strangles , glanders , equine encephalomyelitis, and equine infectious anemia swamp fever.

Their skin is affected by parasites , including certain mites , ticks , and lice. Those with sensitive skin are especially subject to eczemas and abscesses , which may result from neglect or contamination.

Sores caused by injuries to the skin from ill-fitting or unclean saddles and bridles are common ailments. Worms can develop in the intestine and include the larvae of the botfly , pinworms , tapeworms , and roundworms ascarids.

Overwork and neglect may predispose the horse to pneumonia and rheumatism. The ailment known as roaring is an infection of the larynx that makes the horse inhale noisily; a milder form causes the horse to whistle.

Lameness may be caused by bony growths, such as splints, spavins, and ringbones, by soft-tissue enlargements, known as windgalls, thoroughpins, and shoe boils, and by injury to the hooves, including sand crack, split hoof, tread thrush, and acute or chronic laminitis.

The first intensively domesticated horses were developed in Central Asia. They were small, lightweight, and stocky.

In time, two general groups of horses emerged: When, where, and how these horses appeared is disputed.

Nevertheless, all modern breeds—the light, fast, spirited breeds typified by the modern Arabian , the heavier, slower, and calmer working breeds typified by the Belgian , and the intermediate breeds typified by the Thoroughbred —may be classified according to where they originated e.

Its long history is obscured by legend , but the Arabian breed, prized for its stamina, intelligence, and character, is known to have been developed in Arabia by the 7th century ce.

It is a compact horse with a small head, protruding eyes, wide nostrils, marked withers, and a short back. It usually has only 23 vertebrae , while 24 is the usual number for other breeds.

Variation in vertebrae number is found in a wide diversity of breeds. Its legs are strong with fine hooves. The coat, tail, and mane are of fine silky hair.

While many colours are possible in the breed, gray prevails. The most-famous stud farm is in the region of Najd , Saudi Arabia , but many fine Arabian horses are bred in the United States.

The history of the English Thoroughbred is a long one. Records indicate that a stock of Arab and Barb horses was introduced into England as early as the 3rd century.

Conditions of climate, soil, and water favoured development, and selective breeding was long encouraged by those interested in racing.

Under the reigns of James I and Charles I , 43 mares, the Royal Mares, were imported into England, and a record, the General Stud Book , was begun in which are inscribed only those horses that may be traced back to the Royal Mares in direct line or to only three other horses imported to England—the Byerly Turk imported in , the Darley Arabian after , and the Godolphin Barb also known as the Godolphin Arabian, imported about The English Thoroughbred has since been introduced to most countries, where it is bred for racing or used to improve local breeds.

The Thoroughbred has a small fine head, a deep chest, and a straight back. Its legs have short bones that allow a long easy stride, and its coat is generally bay or chestnut, rarely black or gray.

Asian breeds were strongly influenced by Arabian or Persian breeds, which together with the horses of the steppes produced small plain-looking horses of great intelligence and endurance.

A Persian stallion and a Dutch mare produced the Orlov trotter in , named after Aleksey Grigoryevich , Count Orlov, the owner of the stud farm in Khrenovoye, Russia, where the mating took place.

The matings produced a horse larger than the Arabian and smaller than the Thoroughbred, of easy maintenance, and capable of carrying considerable weight in the saddle.

Its coat is generally chestnut or bay. A powerful long-bodied horse, the Standardbred was developed during the first half of the 19th century and can be traced largely to the sire Messenger , a Thoroughbred imported from Britain in and mated to various brood mares in New York, New Jersey , and Pennsylvania.

The American Quarter Horse was bred for races of a quarter of a mile and is said to descend from Janus, a small Thoroughbred stallion imported into Virginia toward the end of the 18th century.

It serves as a polo pony equally well as for ranch work. The Morgan horse originated from a stallion given to Justin Morgan of Vermont around This breed has become a most versatile horse for riding, pulling carriages , farm labour, and cattle cutting.

It was the ideal army charger. It stands about 15 hands Its coat is dark brown or liver chestnut. The Appaloosa is There are various breeds of spotted horses in Europe and Asia, and the actual source of the spotting pattern in the Appaloosa is uncertain.

American breeders have also developed several horses that have specialized gaits. The American Saddlebred horse has a small head and spectacular high-stepping movements.

It is trained for either three or five gaits. The three-gaited horses perform the walk, trot, and canter; the five-gaited horses in addition perform the rack, a quick, high-stepping four-beat gait, and the slow gait, a somewhat slower form of the rack.

Since these horses are used mainly for shows, their hooves are kept rather long, and the muscles of the tail are often clipped so that the base of the tail is carried high.

Chestnut and bay are the usual colours. The Tennessee Walking Horse —a breed derived partially from the Thoroughbred, Standardbred, Morgan, and American Saddlebred horse—serves as a comfortable riding mount used to cover great distances at considerable speed.

Its specialty is the running walk, a long and swift stride. Bay is the most common colour. The Missouri Fox Trotting Horse , a breed developed to cover the rough terrain of the Ozark region, is characterized by an unusual gait, called the fox-trot, in which the front legs move at a walk while the hind legs perform a trot.

The most common colours for this breed are sorrel and chestnut sorrel. The English Hackney is a light carriage horse, influenced by the Thoroughbred and capable of covering distances of 12 to 15 miles 19 to 24 km per hour at the trot and canter.

The Cleveland Bay carriage horse, up to 17 hands about Both breeds are now used for the equestrian event of carriage driving.

Other versatile breeds include the German Holstein, Hanoverian, and East Prussian Trakehner , which serve equally well for riding, light labour, and carriage.

These horses, 16 to 18 hands about The Andalusian, a high-stepping spirited horse, and the small but enduring Barb produced the Lipizzaner , which was named after the stud farm founded near Trieste, Italy, in Originally of all colours, the Lipizzaner is gray or, now exceptionally, bay.

It is small, rarely over 15 hands Intelligence and sweetness of disposition as well as gracefulness destined it for academic horsemanship , notably as practiced at the Spanish Riding School of Vienna.

The horses used for heavy loads and farm labour descended from the ancient war horses of the Middle Ages.

They usually measure well over 16 hands about They are of all colours, sometimes spotted, and generally have a very calm temperament.

Many of these breeds are rare and endangered at present. Ponies are any horses other than Arabians that are shorter than Thus, a horse described as " The size of horses varies by breed, but also is influenced by nutrition.

The largest horse in recorded history was probably a Shire horse named Mammoth , who was born in Ponies are taxonomically the same animals as horses.

The distinction between a horse and pony is commonly drawn on the basis of height, especially for competition purposes. However, height alone is not dispositive; the difference between horses and ponies may also include aspects of phenotype , including conformation and temperament.

The traditional standard for height of a horse or a pony at maturity is Height is not the sole criterion for distinguishing horses from ponies.

Breed registries for horses that typically produce individuals both under and over Ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails, and overall coat.

They also have proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, shorter and thicker necks, and short heads with broad foreheads.

They may have calmer temperaments than horses and also a high level of intelligence that may or may not be used to cooperate with human handlers.

Horses have 64 chromosomes. Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings , described by a specialized vocabulary. Often, a horse is classified first by its coat color, before breed or sex.

Many genes that create horse coat colors and patterns have been identified. Current genetic tests can identify at least 13 different alleles influencing coat color, [44] and research continues to discover new genes linked to specific traits.

The basic coat colors of chestnut and black are determined by the gene controlled by the Melanocortin 1 receptor , [45] also known as the "extension gene" or "red factor," [44] as its recessive form is "red" chestnut and its dominant form is black.

Horses that have a white coat color are often mislabeled; a horse that looks "white" is usually a middle-aged or older gray.

Grays are born a darker shade, get lighter as they age, but usually keep black skin underneath their white hair coat with the exception of pink skin under white markings.

The only horses properly called white are born with a predominantly white hair coat and pink skin, a fairly rare occurrence.

The estrous cycle of a mare occurs roughly every 19—22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn.

Most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period. Larger horses have larger bones; therefore, not only do the bones take longer to form bone tissue , but the epiphyseal plates are larger and take longer to convert from cartilage to bone.

These plates convert after the other parts of the bones, and are crucial to development. Depending on maturity, breed, and work expected, horses are usually put under saddle and trained to be ridden between the ages of two and four.

The horse skeleton averages bones. The horse's legs and hooves are also unique structures. Their leg bones are proportioned differently from those of a human.

For example, the body part that is called a horse's "knee" is actually made up of the carpal bones that correspond to the human wrist.

Similarly, the hock contains bones equivalent to those in the human ankle and heel. The lower leg bones of a horse correspond to the bones of the human hand or foot, and the fetlock incorrectly called the "ankle" is actually the proximal sesamoid bones between the cannon bones a single equivalent to the human metacarpal or metatarsal bones and the proximal phalanges , located where one finds the "knuckles" of a human.

A horse also has no muscles in its legs below the knees and hocks, only skin, hair, bone, tendons , ligaments , cartilage , and the assorted specialized tissues that make up the hoof.

The critical importance of the feet and legs is summed up by the traditional adage, "no foot, no horse". The exterior hoof wall and horn of the sole is made of keratin , the same material as a human fingernail.

The hoof continually grows, and in most domesticated horses needs to be trimmed and horseshoes reset, if used every five to eight weeks, [65] though the hooves of horses in the wild wear down and regrow at a rate suitable for their terrain.

Horses are adapted to grazing. Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors, a type of canine teeth called "tushes".

Some horses, both male and female, will also develop one to four very small vestigial teeth in front of the molars, known as "wolf" teeth, which are generally removed because they can interfere with the bit.

There is an empty interdental space between the incisors and the molars where the bit rests directly on the gums, or "bars" of the horse's mouth when the horse is bridled.

An estimate of a horse's age can be made from looking at its teeth. The teeth continue to erupt throughout life and are worn down by grazing.

Therefore, the incisors show changes as the horse ages; they develop a distinct wear pattern, changes in tooth shape, and changes in the angle at which the chewing surfaces meet.

This allows a very rough estimate of a horse's age, although diet and veterinary care can also affect the rate of tooth wear.

Horses are herbivores with a digestive system adapted to a forage diet of grasses and other plant material, consumed steadily throughout the day.

Therefore, compared to humans, they have a relatively small stomach but very long intestines to facilitate a steady flow of nutrients.

Horses are not ruminants , they have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulose , a major component of grass.

Horses are hindgut fermenters. Cellulose fermentation by symbiotic bacteria occurs in the cecum , or "water gut", which food goes through before reaching the large intestine.

Horses cannot vomit , so digestion problems can quickly cause colic , a leading cause of death. The horses' senses are based on their status as prey animals , where they must be aware of their surroundings at all times.

Their sense of smell , while much better than that of humans, is not quite as good as that of a dog.

It is believed to play a key role in the social interactions of horses as well as detecting other key scents in the environment.

Horses have two olfactory centers. The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors.

The second, located under the nasal cavity, are the Vomeronasal organs , also called Jacobson's organs. These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones.

A study in the UK indicated that stabled horses were calmest in a quiet setting, or if listening to country or classical music, but displayed signs of nervousness when listening to jazz or rock music.

This study also recommended keeping music under a volume of 21 decibels. Horses have a great sense of balance, due partly to their ability to feel their footing and partly to highly developed proprioception —the unconscious sense of where the body and limbs are at all times.

The most sensitive areas are around the eyes, ears, and nose. Horses have an advanced sense of taste, which allows them to sort through fodder and choose what they would most like to eat, [79] and their prehensile lips can easily sort even small grains.

Horses generally will not eat poisonous plants, however, there are exceptions; horses will occasionally eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants even when there is adequate healthy food.

All horses move naturally with four basic gaits: These include the lateral rack , running walk , and tölt as well as the diagonal fox trot. Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response.

Their first reaction to threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened.

Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors.

However, through selective breeding, some breeds of horses are quite docile, particularly certain draft horses. Horses are herd animals , with a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare.

They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans.

They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming , and body language. Many horses will become difficult to manage if they are isolated, but with training, horses can learn to accept a human as a companion, and thus be comfortable away from other horses.

Studies have indicated that horses perform a number of cognitive tasks on a daily basis, meeting mental challenges that include food procurement and identification of individuals within a social system.

They also have good spatial discrimination abilities. Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able to use more advanced cognitive abilities that involve categorization and concept learning.

They can learn using habituation , desensitization , classical conditioning , and operant conditioning , and positive and negative reinforcement.

Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural.

One trainer believes that "intelligent" horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations.

Horses are mammals , and as such are warm-blooded , or endothermic creatures, as opposed to cold-blooded, or poikilothermic animals. However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine terminology, used to describe temperament, not body temperature.

For example, the "hot-bloods", such as many race horses , exhibit more sensitivity and energy, [96] while the "cold-bloods", such as most draft breeds , are quieter and calmer.

They are bred for agility and speed. Muscular, heavy draft horses are known as "cold bloods", as they are bred not only for strength, but also to have the calm, patient temperament needed to pull a plow or a heavy carriage full of people.

Today, the term "Warmblood" refers to a specific subset of sport horse breeds that are used for competition in dressage and show jumping.

The term was once used to refer to breeds of light riding horse other than Thoroughbreds or Arabians, such as the Morgan horse. Horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down.

In an adaptation from life in the wild, horses are able to enter light sleep by using a " stay apparatus " in their legs, allowing them to doze without collapsing.

A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye out for danger. Unlike humans, horses do not sleep in a solid, unbroken period of time, but take many short periods of rest.

Horses spend four to fifteen hours a day in standing rest, and from a few minutes to several hours lying down. Horses must lie down to reach REM sleep.

They only have to lie down for an hour or two every few days to meet their minimum REM sleep requirements. The horse adapted to survive in areas of wide-open terrain with sparse vegetation, surviving in an ecosystem where other large grazing animals, especially ruminants , could not.

All that remains of them in modern horses is a set of small vestigial bones on the leg below the knee, [] known informally as splint bones.

Thus proto-horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating inhabitants of semi-arid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America.

By about 15, years ago, Equus ferus was a widespread holarctic species. A truly wild horse is a species or subspecies with no ancestors that were ever domesticated.

Therefore, most "wild" horses today are actually feral horses , animals that escaped or were turned loose from domestic herds and the descendants of those animals.

The Przewalski's horse Equus ferus przewalskii , named after the Russian explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky , is a rare Asian animal.

It is also known as the Mongolian wild horse; Mongolian people know it as the taki , and the Kyrgyz people call it a kirtag.

The subspecies was presumed extinct in the wild between and , while a small breeding population survived in zoos around the world.

In , it was reestablished in the wild due to the conservation efforts of numerous zoos. The tarpan or European wild horse Equus ferus ferus was found in Europe and much of Asia.

It survived into the historical era, but became extinct in , when the last captive died in a Russian zoo. Attempts have been made to recreate the tarpan, [] [] [] which resulted in horses with outward physical similarities, but nonetheless descended from domesticated ancestors and not true wild horses.

Periodically, populations of horses in isolated areas are speculated to be relict populations of wild horses, but generally have been proven to be feral or domestic.

For example, the Riwoche horse of Tibet was proposed as such, [] but testing did not reveal genetic differences from domesticated horses.

Besides the horse, there are six other species of genus Equus in the Equidae family. Horses can crossbreed with other members of their genus.

The most common hybrid is the mule , a cross between a "jack" male donkey and a mare. A related hybrid, a hinny , is a cross between a stallion and a jenny female donkey.

Domestication of the horse most likely took place in central Asia prior to BC. Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world.

The first source is based on palaeological and archaeological discoveries; the second source is a comparison of DNA obtained from modern horses to that from bones and teeth of ancient horse remains.

The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan , dating to approximately — BC.

Domestication is also studied by using the genetic material of present-day horses and comparing it with the genetic material present in the bones and teeth of horse remains found in archaeological and palaeological excavations.

The variation in the genetic material shows that very few wild stallions contributed to the domestic horse, [] [] while many mares were part of early domesticated herds.

There are very low levels of Y-chromosome variability, [] [] but a great deal of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA.

Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed.

One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes that had adapted to their environment prior to domestication.

Feral horses are born and live in the wild, but are descended from domesticated animals. There are also semi-feral horses in many parts of the world, such as Dartmoor and the New Forest in the UK, where the animals are all privately owned but live for significant amounts of time in "wild" conditions on undeveloped, often public, lands.

Owners of such animals often pay a fee for grazing rights. The concept of purebred bloodstock and a controlled, written breed registry has come to be particularly significant and important in modern times.

Sometimes purebred horses are incorrectly or inaccurately called "thoroughbreds". Thoroughbred is a specific breed of horse, while a "purebred" is a horse or any other animal with a defined pedigree recognized by a breed registry.

These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been selectively bred since their domestication.

An early example of people who practiced selective horse breeding were the Bedouin , who had a reputation for careful practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value upon pure bloodlines.

Breeds developed due to a need for "form to function", the necessity to develop certain characteristics in order to perform a particular type of work.

One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for Thoroughbreds, which began in and traced back to the foundation bloodstock for the breed.

Worldwide, horses play a role within human cultures and have done so for millennia. The genetic makeup of the human population in a geographical area is affected by the presence or absence of horses more variation in Africa, less in Eurasian steppes.

Societies where horse riding is an integral part of life have developed traditional attires specially suited for horse riding such as tightly wrapping waistbands or cummerbunds giving wide support useful for protecting the spine during long journeys, and voluminous headgear such as turban to protect the skull during falls from the horse.

Horses are used for leisure activities, sports, and working purposes. The Food and Agriculture Organization FAO estimates that in , there were almost 59,, horses in the world, with around 33,, in the Americas, 13,, in Asia and 6,, in Europe and smaller portions in Africa and Oceania.

There are estimated to be 9,, horses in the United States alone. Communication between human and horse is paramount in any equestrian activity; [] to aid this process horses are usually ridden with a saddle on their backs to assist the rider with balance and positioning, and a bridle or related headgear to assist the rider in maintaining control.

Historically, equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and honed the excellent horsemanship that was needed in battle.

Many sports, such as dressage , eventing and show jumping , have origins in military training , which were focused on control and balance of both horse and rider.

Other sports, such as rodeo , developed from practical skills such as those needed on working ranches and stations. Sport hunting from horseback evolved from earlier practical hunting techniques.

All forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport.

The popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat.

Horses are trained to be ridden or driven in a variety of sporting competitions. Examples include show jumping , dressage , three-day eventing , competitive driving , endurance riding , gymkhana , rodeos , and fox hunting.

They host a huge range of classes, covering all of the mounted and harness disciplines, as well as "In-hand" classes where the horses are led, rather than ridden, to be evaluated on their conformation.

The method of judging varies with the discipline, but winning usually depends on style and ability of both horse and rider.

Although the horse requires specialized training to participate, the details of its performance are not judged, only the result of the rider's actions—be it getting a ball through a goal or some other task.

Horse racing is an equestrian sport and major international industry, watched in almost every nation of the world.

There are three types: There are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no technology has yet developed to fully replace them.

For example, mounted police horses are still effective for certain types of patrol duties and crowd control. They may also be the only form of transport allowed in wilderness areas.

Horses are quieter than motorized vehicles. Law enforcement officers such as park rangers or game wardens may use horses for patrols, and horses or mules may also be used for clearing trails or other work in areas of rough terrain where vehicles are less effective.

In agriculture, less fossil fuel is used and increased environmental conservation occurs over time with the use of draft animals such as horses.

Horses have been used in warfare for most of recorded history. The first archaeological evidence of horses used in warfare dates to between and BC, [] and the use of horses in warfare was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age.

Horses have been used in the 21st century by the Janjaweed militias in the War in Darfur. Modern horses are often used to reenact many of their historical work purposes.

Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, in various live action historical reenactments of specific periods of history, especially recreations of famous battles.

Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horse-drawn carriages to convey royalty and other VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events.

Horses are frequently used in television, films and literature. They are sometimes featured as a major character in films about particular animals, but also used as visual elements that assure the accuracy of historical stories.

People of all ages with physical and mental disabilities obtain beneficial results from association with horses. Therapeutic riding is used to mentally and physically stimulate disabled persons and help them improve their lives through improved balance and coordination, increased self-confidence, and a greater feeling of freedom and independence.

In hippotherapy, a therapist uses the horse's movement to improve their patient's cognitive, coordination, balance, and fine motor skills, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills.

Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates and help reduce recidivism when they leave.

Horses are raw material for many products made by humans throughout history, including byproducts from the slaughter of horses as well as materials collected from living horses.

Products collected from living horses include mare's milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols , who let it ferment to produce kumis.

Drinking their own horses' blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat.

Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages. It is eaten in many parts of the world, though consumption is taboo in some cultures, [] and a subject of political controversy in others.

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Horse Video

Learn Colors with Horse - Colors Learning Videos for Children - Animation for Kids

The black colour is a true black, although a white face marking blaze and white ankles stockings may occur.

The brown horse is almost black but has lighter areas around the muzzle, eyes, and legs. Bay refers to several shades of brown, from red-brown and tan to sandy.

Bay horses have a black mane, tail, and usually stockings. There is a dilution or lightening gene —called silver or silver dapple—that mainly influences the dark colours of the coat.

Lighter shades of chestnut are called sorrel. The palomino horse runs from cream to bronze, with a flaxen or silvery mane and tail. The cream is a diluted sorrel, or very pale yellow, nearly white.

White in horses is variable, ranging from aging grays to albinos with blue eyes and pink skin and to pseudoalbinos with a buff mane or with brown eyes.

The chief patterns of the white horse are gray, roan, pinto , sabino, and appaloosa. Gray horses are born dark brown or black and develop white hairs as they age, becoming almost all white in advanced years.

Roan refers to white mixed with other colours at birth: The pinto is almost any spotted pattern of white and another colour; other names, such as paint, calico, piebald, skewbald, overo, and tobiano, refer to subtle distinctions in type of colour or pattern.

Appaloosa leopard complex is another extremely variable pattern, but the term generally refers to a large white patch over the hips and loin, with scattered irregular dark spots.

Studies of five coat-colour genes in DNA samples from ancient, predomesticated horses have shown that these horses predominantly carried the genes for black or bay.

Scientists believe that it is very likely that these horses also carried the dun dilution gene. The leopard Appaloosa mutation was also discovered, which was found to be consistent with some cave paintings dating to 25, years ago that depict spotted horses.

Mutations for chestnut, tobiano, and sabino were also observed and were dated to 3, years ago, whereas the buckskin variant had emerged by about 1, years ago.

Most of the variation in coat colour appeared after domestication occurred and was likely the result of artificial selection by humans. For stabled horses, the diet generally consists of hay and grain.

The animal should not be fed immediately before or after work, to avoid digestive problems. Fresh water is important, especially when the horse is shedding its winter coat, but the animal should never be watered when it is overheated after working.

Oats provide the greatest nutritional value and are given especially to foals. Older horses, whose teeth are worn down, or those with digestive troubles, can be provided with crushed oats.

Chaff minced straw can be added to the oat ration of animals that eat greedily or do not chew the grain properly. Crushed barley is sometimes substituted in part for oats.

Mash is bran mixed with water and with various invigorating additions or medications. It may be given to horses with digestive troubles or deficient eating habits.

Corn maize is used as a fattening cereal , but it makes the horse sweat easily. Salt is needed by the horse at all times and especially when shedding.

Bread , carrots , and sugar are tidbits often used by the rider or trainer to reward an animal. In times of poverty, horses have adapted to all sorts of food— potatoes , beans , green leaves, and in Iceland even fish —but such foods are not generally taken if other fare is available.

A number of commercial feed mixes are available to modern breeders and owners; these mixes contain minerals , vitamins , and other nutrients and are designed to provide a balanced diet when supplemented with hay.

Foals, which stand on their feet a short while after birth and are able to follow their mothers within a few hours, even at this early stage in life exhibit the traits generally ascribed to horses.

They have a tendency to flee danger. They express fear sometimes by showing panic and sometimes by immobility.

Horses rarely attack and do so either when flight is impossible or when driven to assault a person who has treated them brutally. Habit governs a large number of their reactions.

Instinct, together with a fine sense of smell and hearing, enables them to sense water, fire , even distant danger. An extremely well-developed sense of direction permits the horse to find its way back to its stables even at night or after a prolonged absence.

The visual memory of the horse prompts it to shy repeatedly from an object or place where it had earlier experienced fear.

When teaching, the instructor always uses the same words and the same tone of voice for a given desired reaction. While instinct is an unconscious reaction more or less present in all individuals of the same species, the degree of its expression varies according to the individual and its development.

Cunning animals have been known to employ their intelligence and physical skill to a determined end, such as opening the latch of a stall or the lid of a chest of oats.

The onset of adult sex characteristics generally begins at the age of 16 to 18 months. The horse is considered mature, depending on the breed, at approximately three years and adult at five.

Fecundity varies according to the breed and may last beyond age 20 with Thoroughbreds and to 12 or 15 with other horses. The gestation period is 11 months; days is the minimum in which the foal can be born with expectation to live.

As a rule, a mare produces one foal per mating, twins occasionally, and triplets rarely. The foal is weaned at six months.

The useful life of a horse varies according to the amount of work it is required to do and the maintenance furnished by its owner.

A horse that is trained carefully and slowly and is given the necessary time for development may be expected to serve to an older age than a horse that is rushed in its training.

Racehorses that enter into races at the age of two rarely remain on the turf beyond eight. Well-kept riding horses, on the contrary, may be used more than 20 years.

The life span of a horse is calculated at six to seven times the time necessary for its physical and mental development—that is, 30 to 35 years at the utmost, the rule being about 20 to 25 years.

Ponies generally live longer than larger horses. There are a number of examples of horses that have passed the usual limit of age. The veterinary university of Vienna conserves the skeleton of a Thoroughbred mare of 44 years of age.

There have been reports made of horses living to their early 60s in age. Horses are subjected to a number of contagious diseases , such as influenza , strangles , glanders , equine encephalomyelitis, and equine infectious anemia swamp fever.

Their skin is affected by parasites , including certain mites , ticks , and lice. Those with sensitive skin are especially subject to eczemas and abscesses , which may result from neglect or contamination.

Sores caused by injuries to the skin from ill-fitting or unclean saddles and bridles are common ailments. Worms can develop in the intestine and include the larvae of the botfly , pinworms , tapeworms , and roundworms ascarids.

Overwork and neglect may predispose the horse to pneumonia and rheumatism. The ailment known as roaring is an infection of the larynx that makes the horse inhale noisily; a milder form causes the horse to whistle.

Lameness may be caused by bony growths, such as splints, spavins, and ringbones, by soft-tissue enlargements, known as windgalls, thoroughpins, and shoe boils, and by injury to the hooves, including sand crack, split hoof, tread thrush, and acute or chronic laminitis.

The first intensively domesticated horses were developed in Central Asia. They were small, lightweight, and stocky. In time, two general groups of horses emerged: When, where, and how these horses appeared is disputed.

Nevertheless, all modern breeds—the light, fast, spirited breeds typified by the modern Arabian , the heavier, slower, and calmer working breeds typified by the Belgian , and the intermediate breeds typified by the Thoroughbred —may be classified according to where they originated e.

Its long history is obscured by legend , but the Arabian breed, prized for its stamina, intelligence, and character, is known to have been developed in Arabia by the 7th century ce.

It is a compact horse with a small head, protruding eyes, wide nostrils, marked withers, and a short back. The original horses from Dr.

Zhark's Mo' Creatures mod. Jeb and Dinnerbone riding horses, as seen on the 1. Showing the very faint markings on a white tobiano.

A bay tobiano is in the background for comparison. Entity data Tags common to all entities see Template: Remains 0 after breeding.

If true, causes it to stay near other horses with this flag set. Ranges from 0 to ; increases with feeding. Higher values make a horse easier to tame.

Contains the UUID of the player that tamed the horse. Has no effect on behavior. The armor item worn by this horse. Tags common to all items see Template: The saddle item worn by this horse.

The variant of the horse. Unused values lead to invisible horses. A chested horse that is not a donkey or a mule will crash the game.

Only exists if ChestedHorse is true. An item, including the Slot tag. Slots are numbered 2 to 16 for donkeys and mules, and none exist for all other horses.

Does not affect horse type. Incremented each tick when SkeletonTrap is set to 1. The horse automatically despawns when it reaches 15 minutes.

Please remove this notice once you've added suitable images to the article. The specific instructions are: Also, note the texture change that resulted from MC 's fix.

Additionally, it would be nice to have the texture of the creamy horse in 18w22a. A "horse" retextured cow from 2.

Showing the result of right clicking a spawn egg on a horse while mounted. Retrieved from " https: Inaccurate videos Bedrock Edition upcoming.

Navigation menu Namespaces Page Talk. Views View Edit History. Gamepedia Gamepedia support Help Wiki Contact us. This page was last edited on 7 November , at Minecraft content and materials are trademarks and copyrights of Mojang and its licensors.

This site is a part of Curse, Inc. About Minecraft Wiki Disclaimers Mobile view. Leather 0—2 when normal Rotten Flesh 0—2 when zombie Bone 0—2 when skeleton.

Saddle Horse Armor Chest plus contents. The horse is a calm and confident compatriot out in the Minecraft wilds.

Found in herds of two-to-six, they roam the plains and savanna biomes chomping on grass and swishing their swishy tails. But this life is an ambling, unfocused one, and the proud horse is a creature worthy of far greater adventure.

Activates love mode in tamed horses. Enchanted golden apples also work. Breed a pair of one of these 11 mobs. Other breedable mobs, if any, are ignored for the advancement.

Breed a pair of one of these 12 mobs. Tame one of the 5 types of mob that are tamable. Breed pairs of each of these 11 mobs.

Other tamable mobs, if any, are ignored for the advancement. This page would benefit from the addition of more images.

Jeb hinted at adding horses when Minecraft hit 10,, sales. Horses are now ridden using the saddle. Horses can no longer be fed bread for taming, healing, or growing.

There is a chance depending on regional difficulty that a lightning strike will spawn a "skeleton trap" skeletal horse. Drops changed several times.

The end result is that undead horses now always drop 1 of their item bone or rotten flesh , not affected by Looting.

Horses now have different IDs: The new model was slightly tweaked. Updated the horse model again, also slightly altered the texture. Skeleton horses will now sink in water, due to being an undead mob.

Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses.

These feral populations are not true wild horses , as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse , a separate subspecies, and the only remaining true wild horse.

There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors , markings , breeds , locomotion , and behavior.

Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.

Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: Most domesticated horses begin training under saddle or in harness between the ages of two and four.

Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work , agriculture , entertainment, and therapy.

Horses were historically used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control.

Many products are derived from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares.

Humans provide domesticated horses with food, water and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers.

Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy , different life stages, colors and breeds.

In horse racing , these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old.

The height of horses is usually measured at the highest point of the withers , where the neck meets the back. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is often stated in units of hands and inches: The height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point , then the number of additional inches, and ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh" for "hands high".

Thus, a horse described as " The size of horses varies by breed, but also is influenced by nutrition. The largest horse in recorded history was probably a Shire horse named Mammoth , who was born in Ponies are taxonomically the same animals as horses.

The distinction between a horse and pony is commonly drawn on the basis of height, especially for competition purposes.

However, height alone is not dispositive; the difference between horses and ponies may also include aspects of phenotype , including conformation and temperament.

The traditional standard for height of a horse or a pony at maturity is Height is not the sole criterion for distinguishing horses from ponies.

Breed registries for horses that typically produce individuals both under and over Ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails, and overall coat.

They also have proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, shorter and thicker necks, and short heads with broad foreheads.

They may have calmer temperaments than horses and also a high level of intelligence that may or may not be used to cooperate with human handlers.

Horses have 64 chromosomes. Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings , described by a specialized vocabulary. Often, a horse is classified first by its coat color, before breed or sex.

Many genes that create horse coat colors and patterns have been identified. Current genetic tests can identify at least 13 different alleles influencing coat color, [44] and research continues to discover new genes linked to specific traits.

The basic coat colors of chestnut and black are determined by the gene controlled by the Melanocortin 1 receptor , [45] also known as the "extension gene" or "red factor," [44] as its recessive form is "red" chestnut and its dominant form is black.

Horses that have a white coat color are often mislabeled; a horse that looks "white" is usually a middle-aged or older gray.

Grays are born a darker shade, get lighter as they age, but usually keep black skin underneath their white hair coat with the exception of pink skin under white markings.

The only horses properly called white are born with a predominantly white hair coat and pink skin, a fairly rare occurrence.

The estrous cycle of a mare occurs roughly every 19—22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn. Most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period.

Larger horses have larger bones; therefore, not only do the bones take longer to form bone tissue , but the epiphyseal plates are larger and take longer to convert from cartilage to bone.

These plates convert after the other parts of the bones, and are crucial to development. Depending on maturity, breed, and work expected, horses are usually put under saddle and trained to be ridden between the ages of two and four.

The horse skeleton averages bones. The horse's legs and hooves are also unique structures. Their leg bones are proportioned differently from those of a human.

For example, the body part that is called a horse's "knee" is actually made up of the carpal bones that correspond to the human wrist. Similarly, the hock contains bones equivalent to those in the human ankle and heel.

The lower leg bones of a horse correspond to the bones of the human hand or foot, and the fetlock incorrectly called the "ankle" is actually the proximal sesamoid bones between the cannon bones a single equivalent to the human metacarpal or metatarsal bones and the proximal phalanges , located where one finds the "knuckles" of a human.

A horse also has no muscles in its legs below the knees and hocks, only skin, hair, bone, tendons , ligaments , cartilage , and the assorted specialized tissues that make up the hoof.

The critical importance of the feet and legs is summed up by the traditional adage, "no foot, no horse". The exterior hoof wall and horn of the sole is made of keratin , the same material as a human fingernail.

The hoof continually grows, and in most domesticated horses needs to be trimmed and horseshoes reset, if used every five to eight weeks, [65] though the hooves of horses in the wild wear down and regrow at a rate suitable for their terrain.

Horses are adapted to grazing. Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors, a type of canine teeth called "tushes".

Some horses, both male and female, will also develop one to four very small vestigial teeth in front of the molars, known as "wolf" teeth, which are generally removed because they can interfere with the bit.

There is an empty interdental space between the incisors and the molars where the bit rests directly on the gums, or "bars" of the horse's mouth when the horse is bridled.

An estimate of a horse's age can be made from looking at its teeth. The teeth continue to erupt throughout life and are worn down by grazing.

Therefore, the incisors show changes as the horse ages; they develop a distinct wear pattern, changes in tooth shape, and changes in the angle at which the chewing surfaces meet.

This allows a very rough estimate of a horse's age, although diet and veterinary care can also affect the rate of tooth wear. Horses are herbivores with a digestive system adapted to a forage diet of grasses and other plant material, consumed steadily throughout the day.

Therefore, compared to humans, they have a relatively small stomach but very long intestines to facilitate a steady flow of nutrients.

Horses are not ruminants , they have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulose , a major component of grass.

Horses are hindgut fermenters. Cellulose fermentation by symbiotic bacteria occurs in the cecum , or "water gut", which food goes through before reaching the large intestine.

Horses cannot vomit , so digestion problems can quickly cause colic , a leading cause of death. The horses' senses are based on their status as prey animals , where they must be aware of their surroundings at all times.

Their sense of smell , while much better than that of humans, is not quite as good as that of a dog. It is believed to play a key role in the social interactions of horses as well as detecting other key scents in the environment.

Horses have two olfactory centers. The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors.

The second, located under the nasal cavity, are the Vomeronasal organs , also called Jacobson's organs.

These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones. A study in the UK indicated that stabled horses were calmest in a quiet setting, or if listening to country or classical music, but displayed signs of nervousness when listening to jazz or rock music.

This study also recommended keeping music under a volume of 21 decibels. Horses have a great sense of balance, due partly to their ability to feel their footing and partly to highly developed proprioception —the unconscious sense of where the body and limbs are at all times.

The most sensitive areas are around the eyes, ears, and nose. Horses have an advanced sense of taste, which allows them to sort through fodder and choose what they would most like to eat, [79] and their prehensile lips can easily sort even small grains.

Horses generally will not eat poisonous plants, however, there are exceptions; horses will occasionally eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants even when there is adequate healthy food.

All horses move naturally with four basic gaits: These include the lateral rack , running walk , and tölt as well as the diagonal fox trot.

Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response. Their first reaction to threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened.

Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors.

However, through selective breeding, some breeds of horses are quite docile, particularly certain draft horses. Horses are herd animals , with a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare.

They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans. They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming , and body language.

Many horses will become difficult to manage if they are isolated, but with training, horses can learn to accept a human as a companion, and thus be comfortable away from other horses.

Studies have indicated that horses perform a number of cognitive tasks on a daily basis, meeting mental challenges that include food procurement and identification of individuals within a social system.

They also have good spatial discrimination abilities. Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able to use more advanced cognitive abilities that involve categorization and concept learning.

They can learn using habituation , desensitization , classical conditioning , and operant conditioning , and positive and negative reinforcement.

Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural.

One trainer believes that "intelligent" horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations.

Horses are mammals , and as such are warm-blooded , or endothermic creatures, as opposed to cold-blooded, or poikilothermic animals.

However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine terminology, used to describe temperament, not body temperature.

For example, the "hot-bloods", such as many race horses , exhibit more sensitivity and energy, [96] while the "cold-bloods", such as most draft breeds , are quieter and calmer.

They are bred for agility and speed. Muscular, heavy draft horses are known as "cold bloods", as they are bred not only for strength, but also to have the calm, patient temperament needed to pull a plow or a heavy carriage full of people.

Today, the term "Warmblood" refers to a specific subset of sport horse breeds that are used for competition in dressage and show jumping.

The term was once used to refer to breeds of light riding horse other than Thoroughbreds or Arabians, such as the Morgan horse.

Horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down. In an adaptation from life in the wild, horses are able to enter light sleep by using a " stay apparatus " in their legs, allowing them to doze without collapsing.

A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye out for danger. Unlike humans, horses do not sleep in a solid, unbroken period of time, but take many short periods of rest.

Horses spend four to fifteen hours a day in standing rest, and from a few minutes to several hours lying down. Horses must lie down to reach REM sleep.

They only have to lie down for an hour or two every few days to meet their minimum REM sleep requirements.

The horse adapted to survive in areas of wide-open terrain with sparse vegetation, surviving in an ecosystem where other large grazing animals, especially ruminants , could not.

All that remains of them in modern horses is a set of small vestigial bones on the leg below the knee, [] known informally as splint bones.

Thus proto-horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating inhabitants of semi-arid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America.

By about 15, years ago, Equus ferus was a widespread holarctic species. A truly wild horse is a species or subspecies with no ancestors that were ever domesticated.

Therefore, most "wild" horses today are actually feral horses , animals that escaped or were turned loose from domestic herds and the descendants of those animals.

The Przewalski's horse Equus ferus przewalskii , named after the Russian explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky , is a rare Asian animal.

It is also known as the Mongolian wild horse; Mongolian people know it as the taki , and the Kyrgyz people call it a kirtag.

Horse -

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